About this blog

Welcome to the Gita Govinda blog. Here you will find a collection of different renditions of Jayadeva’s Gita Govinda Ashtapadis. Each of the 24 Ashtapadis has a static post of its own, which you can access on the right (the dates on the posts are just to set the order; we’ll keep updating them as we find new renditions).

Jayadeva was a poet of the 12th century, hailing from today’s Orissa. His Gita Govinda is a work of Sanskrit love poetry and song, centered around its most famous components, 24 Ashtapadis (songs with 8 couplets). These Ashtapadis are about different moods in the love between Krishna and Radha — some are almost hymns, listing Krishna’s achievements in his various incarnations; some are glimpses into Krishna’s or Radha’s minds at times of separation, anger or reconciliation; some others are the words of messengers sent to each other, urging mercy and to swallow pride. There is a nod to the concept of ‘Ashta-nayika’, an idea from Bharata’s Natyashastra about 8 situations a heroine in love finds herself in. There is, naturally, also a possible spiritual interpretation to all this, with Radha as the jivatma and Krishna as the paramatma.

These Ashtapadis’ very alluring mixture of context, melody, simplicity, and really, a certain je ne sais quoi have made them Sanskrit literature’s greatest cross-platform blockbuster hit. From the easternmost corner of Manipur and Assam, where it spawned a tradition of dance and singing; to Bengal, where this was an essential element of Sri Chaitanya’s movement; down to Orissa, where even today virtually every art form from Odissi dance to music to temple sculpture involves them; to Andhra, where it is the soul of several Kuchipudi dance compositions; down to Tamil Nadu, where Carnatic music rejoices in newer and newer tunings of its lyrics, tens of Sanskrit treatises elaborate on how it can be performed in dance, Tanjore paintings celebrate its scenes, and temple traditions make Bhajans out of it; to Kerala, where the dance form Mohiniattam derived great inspiration, and an entire genre of music, Sopana Sangeetham, was born as these Ashtapadis were sung on the temple stairs; up to the coast of Karnataka, where it inspires Yakshagana dances to this day; up to Maharashtra and Gujarat, where it was a key nucleator of the Krishna-Bhakti traditions; to Rajasthan, the central territories and the Gangetic plain, all the way up to Kashmir where several hundred derivative works have appeared in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and local languages. To even comprehend the Gita Govinda’s reach would require some level of mastery of every facet of Indian art! What’s more, a large portion of this conquest happened within just a century after its composition. Political and geographical fragmentation seems to have been a trivial barrier for this cultural unity to envelop the whole of the subcontinent!

The real beauty of the Gita Govinda is in its music. The lyrics are written in such a way that a talented composer can fit a large number of tunes and unleash his creativity, letting the music speak even more than the words. We wanted to give a glimpse of this and began collecting different renditions of a few Ashtapadis; this snowballed into an all-out effort, and this blog was born.

For starters, check out Dr. M. Balamuralikrishna’s version of the famous Ashtapadi #7 “Mamiyam Chalita” and compare  against Varagoor Narayanan’s Carnatic Bhajan version here: Ashtapadi #7, “Mamiyam Chalita”

Next up, #11 “Dheera Sameere”, is a great next step. Compare Pandit Raghunath Panigrahi’s immortal rendition with Ghantasala’s strongly Carnatic version, and P. Unnikrishnan’s very well melded Pop version here: Ashtapadi #11, “Dheera Sameere”

#19 “Priye Charusheele” is also an all-time favorite. Compare Dr. M. Balamuralikrishna’s version with Njerlath Harigovindan’s percussion-heavy Sopana Sangeetham version here: Ashtapadi #19, “Priye Charusheele”

Just to see how incredibly vibrant these songs remain, check out the fusion version of #8, “Nindati Chandanam”, by Haraprasad and compare with the more traditional versions here: Ashtapadi #8, “Nindati Chandanam”

The blog is still a work in progress, and we very much appreciate your feedback and suggestions. Please feel free to comment. If you know of a rendition you think we should put up, we’d be very grateful if you could let us know.

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13 Responses to About this blog

  1. Ananth Harikrishnan says:

    Admire and appreciate sucha great endeavour. I have been on the hunt to get these ashtapadis for a long time, and here it is! I would like to post a suggestion, if possible, can we have the translation of these amazing lyrics as well. I understand the sahitya to an extenet but I still feel there is more.

    Againg thanks and praises for such a remarkable work.

  2. Mohan says:

    Hello Ananth, Many thanks for your kind words. As you can imagine, translating Sanskrit in English is a rather messy process, and it’s very hard to get across the sense with the just the words. It’s much easier to translate to an Indian language. However, we do understand your request, and will try to post at least a general sense of each ashtapadi. Thanks!

  3. Ananth Harikrishnan says:

    Thanks Mohan.
    Please find the following Ashtapadis recited as Sopana Sangeetham by the exponent Guruvayur Janadanan in the following link http://www.hummaa.com/music/album/sopana-sangeetham/28472







  4. Aussie F says:

    Beautiful material. I wonder to what extent the ‘western’ tradition of ‘courtly love’ has similar roots in a spiritual aesthetic?

    • Mohan says:

      Thanks, glad you liked it. I’ve seen several instances in western settings where _love itself_ is held as sacred, but so far have not seen any where it is an allegory for a spiritual union.

  5. Seshu says:

    Very good effort, nice blog, Thank you.

  6. Ram says:

    My congratulations on a beautiful effort… I would recommend the 10th Ashtapadhi rendering by Udalayur Kalyanaraman during Alangudi Radhakalyanam.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kdkR3ZnD2dU. Current links do not work..

  7. beautiful blog… very useful.. am I glad that I came across this blog while searching for lyrics of Priyae Charusheelay! Great effort… if possible, please post sanskrit version of the lyris also… it is tough reading the lyrics in English….

    God bless you for this great blog!

  8. Guruprasad says:

    Many odissi singers too have sung ashtapadis. For instance Vinod Bihari Panda and Sangeetha Panda. Absolutely stunning renditions. Great blog and even greater effort.

  9. Niraj says:

    Really appreciate you r effort for put forth a complete blog on GITA GOVIND.
    Very helpful for a saadhak on his journey towards Krishna’s Love.

  10. Ranjani Raghavan says:

    This is an excellent Blog!!! really appreciate your sincere efforts. Best wishes.

  11. Gandharv says:

    Hi Mohan,

    thks you hold on to the good work explaining the difficult to comprehend, hence my question after browsing the internet for a sample of original ragas mentioned by Jayadeva in 12 th cent.

    For sample Ashtapadhi 1. Where do I get the pada written with/without svaras, the words and notes in correct metre? I searched for raga names and found at least one: Sowrashtram aka Dwijavanthi, as a carnatic name of 16 th cent, see wiki. But who knows the 12 th cent. name and form since there were many changes during that time.

    Another scholar mentioned 11 ragas, ig. I take here the first, Malava for example. I could trace it to Malava Kaisika mentioned by Sarangadev (ca.1175–1247 AD), who was a contemporary of Jayadeva ( ca 1170 AD). It is written with eight notes from mandra Sa to madhya Sa, given with altogether 8*8=64 notes and it resembles the C major scale in ashtapada form. Sarangadev even mentioned Malava Kaisika was sung in pain of separation for Keshava in the Vibralambha mode. Usually Sa carries the Vira, Rudra, Adhuta Rasa but here Sringara is added and Krishna is mentioned by a Saivite contemporary of Jayadeva, which is good news that it maybe an hard to find original. Malava Kaisika raga is born of Kaisiki Jati of old as mentioned in Bharata Natya Shastra. I would like to know Jayadevas word syllables in pada form so as to join the notes with them ig. Sarangadev takes a line of 5 syllables and puts 8 notes to them and this continues until the end of the poem is reached.
    Is there anyone who knows about the original forms of writing the Ashtapadhi?


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